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ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Notes - Memory Hierarchy Design - 4

Advanced Computer Architecture

Post: September 1st, 2011
Description
Notes on: Average memory access time, CPU stalls, cache optimizations, Reducing Cache Miss Penalty, Multi-Level Caches, Critical Word First and Early Restart, Merging Write Buffer, Victim Caches, Larger Block Size, Higher Associativity, Compiler Optimizations, Loop Interchange, Blocking, virtual memory, Fast Address Translation, Paged Virtual Memory, Alpha Memory Management, Kernel,
Notes on: Average memory access time, CPU stalls, cache optimizations, Reducing Cache Miss Penalty, Multi-Level Caches, Critical Word First and Early Restart, Merging Write Buffer, Victim Caches, Larger Block Size, Higher Associativity, Compiler Optimizations, Loop Interchange, Blocking, virtual memory, Fast Address Translation, Paged Virtual Memory, Alpha Memory Management, Kernel,
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Memory Hierarchy Design 1. How to evaluate Cache Performance. Explain various cache optimization categories. The average memory access time is calculated as follows Average memory access time = hit time + Miss rate x Miss Penalty. Where Hit Time is the time to deliver a block in the cache to the processor (includes time to determine whether the block is in the cache), Miss Rate is the fraction of memory references not found in cache (misses/references) and Miss Penalty is the additional time required because of a miss The average memory access time due to cache misses predicts processor performance. First, there are other reasons for stalls, such as contention due to I/O devices using memory and due to cache misses Second, The CPU stalls during misses, and the memory stall time is strongly correlated to average memory access time. CPU time = (CPU execution clock cycles + Memory stall clock cycles) × Clock cycle time There are 17 cache optimizations into four categories: 1 Reducing th..

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